DEFOLIATION OF COTTON WITHOUT PESTICIDES
Khalikov, Ashimbek (EN)
(73) patent holder(s):
Khalikov, Ashimbek (EN)
(54) DEFOLIATION OF COTTON WITHOUT PESTICIDES
The invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method for defoliation of cotton, hot air is used. At the same time, hot steam from a steam generator is used to scald the leaves, which converts water into steam. To dry the leaves with hot air, a heat gun is used, and cryogenic technology is carried out using a cryogenic unit to supply gas to the nozzle for freezing cotton leaves. The method provides effective removal of cotton leaves.
Cotton is a very common technical crop of strategic importance. Therefore, in order to possess these raw materials, wars of conquest were waged. As technology changes in the world, consumption increases. If the countries of Africa and America and parts of Asia have climate-friendly conditions, some countries have many problems, for this reason, growth regulation and removal of leaves from the cotton Bush are applied to speed up the opening of the fruit. Thus, this forces the use of pesticides.
Defoliation and desiccation of cotton
Calcium chloride chlorate is a 42% aqueous solution. Contact defoliant and desiccant. It can be used on the same crops and at the same time as magnesium chlorate, but in twice as large doses. However, due to the fact that it is produced as a low-concentrated aqueous solution, its transportation and storage are extremely difficult. It is currently used only for defoliation and desiccation of cotton. Doses - 25-30 kg per 1 ha for defoliation (when opening 1-2 boxes on average on bushes) and 40-50 kg per 1 ha for desiccation of cotton (when opening more than 50% of boxes on average on bushes, after I-2 collections of raw cotton). The consumption of the solution for aerial spraying is 100 liters per 1 ha, for tractor spraying-500-600 liters. In some areas, there is a milder and slower effect of calcium chloride chlorate compared to magnesium chlorate.
Defoliation and desiccation of cotton are interrelated techniques in preparing cotton for machine harvesting. They significantly accelerate the rate of maturation and disclosure of the boxes that is not only as a result of the positive effects of defoliants and desiccants, but also changes the microclimate of the hive, its lightness and to reduce moisture the air and soil and increase the temperature of the surface layer of air.
The combination of defoliation and desiccation of cotton makes it possible to complete cotton harvesting earlier and to carry out winter plowing at an earlier time, which is necessary to obtain a high yield in the next year.
Chlorate-calcium chloride. 42% V. R. is used for defoliation and desiccation of cotton and a number of other crops in the following norms: on cotton, spraying for the purpose of defoliation (double processing is allowed) is carried out when opening 1-4 boxes on a Bush - 20-30 l/ha, and for desiccation when opening 50% of boxes - 40-50 l/ha, on rice, sunflower, wheat, potatoes, soy, castor, sugar beet testes (desiccation) - 40-50 l/ha ha. The waiting period is 6 days, processing is one-time.
Defoliation and desiccation of cotton are more widely used agrotechnical measures than desiccation of other crops. Therefore, preparations used in cotton production and new promising substances with high defoliating and drying activity on cotton are considered separately.
Gramoxone, and especially reglon, are widely used all over the world for pre-harvest removal of potato tops, for chemical root drying of clover and alfalfa seed crops, for preparing alfalfa hay on the root, which reduces protein losses resulting from sun-drying of mown grass, for desiccation of castor, soy, sorghum, sunflower, rice, sugar beet seed crops, sugar cane, for defoliation and desiccation of cotton, and others culture.
With a combination of methods of defoliation and desiccation of cotton, it is possible to harvest crops more quickly and economically, clear the fields of cotton stalks in a timely manner, and conduct winter plowing in normal terms, which is the key to a high yield of the future. Defoliation and desiccation of cotton are interrelated techniques in preparing cotton for machine harvesting. They accelerate the rate of maturation and disclosure of the boxes that is not only as a result of the positive effects of defoliants and desiccants, but also changes the microclimate of a Bush, clarification and reduction of humidity of air and soil, and also some increase in temperature in the surface layer of air. Defoliants and desiccants of cotton have insecticidal and acaricidal effects, resulting in a reduction in the number of sucking and gnawing pests by the spring of next year. The combination of defoliation and desiccation of cotton makes it possible to complete machine harvesting earlier, prepare the field, and plow at an earlier time, which is necessary to obtain a high crop next year. Defoliants and desiccants are used in certain areas of the country, which is due, first, to the growing areas of crops that may be subjected to defoliation or desiccation, and second, to the climatic conditions in which the effect of defoliants and desiccants may manifest. For example, calcium cyanamide, butyphos, and pentachlorophenol, which are used for defoliation and desiccation of cotton, are mainly used in the Central Asian republics. Magnesium chlorate and calcium chlorate-chloride, which are effective not only for defoliation and desiccation of cotton, but also for desiccation of many other crops (rice, sunflower, wheat, potatoes, castor, soy, sugar beet seeds, green and seed hemp), are widely used in various soil and climatic zones.
Butifos. The active substance is 5,5,5-tributyl-trayfoot. Produced 70% K. e. srednetoxichen For warm-blooded. It is used in the norm of 1.4-3 l / ha for defoliation and desiccation of cotton when opening 1-4 boxes in plants. Causes the fall of only those leaves on which it falls. Promotes intensive opening of the boxes. It is characterized by high activity in various cotton growing zones. Equally effective in both wet and dry weather for defoliation and desiccation of cotton, beans, soy and flax, it is proposed to use 1% aqueous emulsions of solutions of ISO-octilxanthogenacetic acid (in mineral oil). ISO-octyl xanthogenacetic acid is prepared by reacting an aqueous solution of sodium isooctyl xanthogenate with sodium monochloroacetate at 70°C. For defoliation and desiccation of cotton in our country, calcium cyanamide, magnesium chlorate, calcium chlorate-chloride, butyphosum are produced.
Magnesium chlorate is used for desiccation of other crops, and sodium rhodanide is used for desiccation of lupine. This range of products is extremely limited and does not take into account the entire variety of crops, agrotechnical and environmental, soil-climatic and varietal characteristics of their cultivation, does not provide proper maneuverability in the specific conditions of each farm. For desiccation of crops, fast-acting drugs are needed, 4-6 days after the application of which you can start harvesting. These drugs include dipyridyl derivatives (reglon, gra-uyuxoi and a new domestic experimental drug dipyridyl phosphate). Reglon is widely used, and gramoxone is less widely used abroad and is studied in our country.
Defoliation and desiccation are necessary for successful mechanized harvesting. The effectiveness of drugs depends on the condition of plants, ambient temperature, soil and air humidity, soil fertility, plant nutrition, timing and methods of application.
Defoliation. The use of defoliants during the period of increased physiological and biochemical activity, for example, in the phase of fruit formation, does not cause changes in the leaves that would ensure their fall. At this time, synthesis processes predominate over decay processes, and defoliants are not able to disrupt this type of exchange. They cause processes in plants that are similar to those that occur when the leaves age and fall naturally. In the leaves, the content of chlorophyll decreases, photosynthesis is suppressed, the formation of organic substances is disrupted, the amount of water is noticeably reduced, and the content of breakdown products of proteins and other compounds increases. Flowing from the leaf blade into the petiole, these compounds cause the cells of the separating layer to separate, and the leaf falls off under its own weight. This process in aging leaves is also stimulated by ethylene accumulating in their tissues. The effectiveness of defoliants is also determined by the quality of agrotechnical measures, such as irrigation, row-to-row processing, fertilizer" chasing", which ensure uniform plant development and early maturation. It should be noted that later defoliation delays the start of harvesting, reduces the percentage of machine collection of raw cotton and increases its cloggin Defoliants used in cotton-growing farms.
Magnesium chlorate. Crystalline lumpy yellow powder containing 58-66% chemically pure magnesium chlorate, about 30% sodium chloride and minor impurities of sodium chlorate, potassium chloride, magnesium sulfate and calcium. It is well soluble in water and hygroscopic. It is recommended to store it in dry rooms and containers that do not allow water to pass through. Magnesium chlorate is less demanding to heat, more effective at an average daily temperature of 17-18°C. It is slightly toxic to warm-blooded people.Chlorate-calcium chloride is an aqueous solution of salts of chlorate and calcium chloride. The liquid is light yellow. Contains 42% of calcium chloride. The drug under normal conditions (at a temperature of 20°C) is 1.5 times heavier than water, it is well soluble in it. It has a slightly delayed effect on cotton leaves.
Butifos is an organophosphorus defoliant. It is produced as a 70% emulsion concentrate. The liquid is light brown or yellowish in color, has a high volatility and a sharp unpleasant smell. It is mixed with water in any ratio, forming a stable emulsion that causes the fall of cotton leaves in various humidity conditions. It is more effective at an average daily air temperature of 18-20°C. Lowering the temperature slows down the effect of butifos; it is necessary to slightly increase the rate of consumption of the drug. Highly toxic to warm-blooded animals.
Butylcatechol - liquid dark brown color with a characteristic odor. It is well soluble in water. The form of the preparation is an emulsion concentrate containing 80% of the active substance and 10% OP-7 or OP-10. The drug is low-toxic for warm-blooded people.
Was hidrel a new drug. It is an ethylene product. Active ingredient - 2-chloromethylphosphonic acid. The liquid is colorless, odorless, with an acidic reaction. Recommended in doses of 6-8 kg/ha for defoliation of upland and 4-6 kg/ha of fine-fibered cotton in pure form and in mixture with butylcatechol in composition of 3+3, 4+4 and 5+5 kg/ha for upland, 2+3 and 3+3 kg/ha (under current substance) to fine-fibered cotton.
Naturally, this technology spoils the soil, as well as the environment. Cotton is used one hundred percent, even waste, so it is very undesirable to use pesticides. The study of previous developments allowed us to understand that it is necessary to change the technology of defoliation of cotton. Existing technology can be upgraded to use a steam generator, heat gun, and cryogenic technology. The author is not aware of the use of such technology, so he makes only his own visions and conclusions. Water vapor is a gaseous aggregate state of water that has no color, taste, or smell. Contained in the troposphere. It is formed by water molecules when it evaporates. When water vapor enters the air, it, like all other gases, creates a certain pressure, called partial pressure. It is expressed in units of pressure - Pascals. Water vapor can pass directly into the solid phase (desublimation) - ice crystals. The amount of water vapor in grams contained in 1 cubic meter is called absolute humidity.
Since the heat capacity of steam, or rather the heat of its condensation, is quite large, it is often used as an effective heat carrier. Examples of use include steam heating, industrial use of steam, such as steam generators.
Vaporization is the property of droplet liquids to change their aggregate state and turn into steam. Vaporization that occurs only on the surface of a drop of liquid is called evaporation. Vaporization over the entire volume of the liquid is called boiling; it occurs at a certain temperature, depending on the pressure. The pressure at which a liquid boils at a given temperature is called saturated vapor pressure, its value depends on the type of liquid and its temperature.
The principle of operation of a heat gun: a special element in the product body is heated to a high temperature, and an air flow created by a fan passes through it. The result is a powerful jet of high-temperature air.
A liter of liquid nitrogen, evaporating and heating to 20°C, forms about 700 liters of gas. For this reason, liquid nitrogen is stored in special Dewar vessels with open-type vacuum insulation or cryogenic pressure vessels. Liquid nitrogen has many applications. You can use it with the existing technology to replace the very harmful toxic defoliation. The petals of cotton varieties are of different thickness, they can be steamed, dried with hot air or frozen. This way we can achieve our goal without chemicals and it will cost us much less. By replacing chemical defoliation with process defoliation, we can use hot steam, hot air, and cooled nitrogen. With all these technologies, we strive to remove the petals from the cotton Bush. This technical treatment kills all living cells of the petal and does not impair the quality and quantity of the crop. Our goal here is to make the materials used available to consumers. The most effective way is to use sheet freezing, but materials may not be available. Therefore, it is very convenient to use steam generators and a heat gun, at a very high temperature, a cotton leaf dies. This will speed up the opening of the fruit. In this way, we achieve one hundred percent maturation of cotton boxes. The result is a high yield and high-quality product.
The technical problem is that when using defoliation by steam and cold, a container is required - for liquid nitrogen and for a steam generator-so that there is water. For a heat gun, you need an electric generator. The tank is mounted on the frame and connected to the rod. The rod is attached to the spray nozzle from above. To make the treatment more effective for row-to-row beds, an additional cylindrical nozzle is attached to the rod. These nozzles are hollow and you can send heat and cold there under pressure, as well as hot steam from the steam generator. This is how we achieve our goal.
A method for defoliation of cotton without pesticides, including the use of hot air, characterized in that for scalding the leaves use the hot steam of a steam generator that converts water into steam, for drying the leaves with hot air, a heat gun is used, and cryogenic technology is carried out using a cryogenic unit to supply gas to the nozzle for freezing cotton leaves.