METHOD OF COTTON CULTIVATION UNDER PLASTIC (AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY
Khalikov To Kasymbek
Khalikov, Ashimbek (EN)
(73) patent holder(s):
Khalikov, Ashimbek (EN)
(54) METHOD OF COTTON CULTIVATION UNDER PLASTIC (AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY)
The method includes spreading the film on the soil, sowing seeds through holes made in the film, into the nest, while sealing the edges of the film with soil, cutting the irrigation furrow and mulching. Mulching is carried out directly into the nest after laying the seeds and closing the holes of the mulch film. When sealing the film, it is prevented from mechanical slits and falling asleep with earth. The film is not removed and removed together with the grown cotton Bush. In addition, depending on the change in the terrain of the site and soil moisture, as well as depending on the method of harvesting (manual or mechanized), the seeding scheme and the distance between the nests are changed. The invention will increase the crop yield and accelerate the process of maturation of cotton while reducing the time of the growing season. 3 z. p. f-ly, 6 Il.
The invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the cultivation of cotton with the use of film cover.A method of growing cotton is known, including sowing seeds, covering them with a polymer film and removing it after germination, and the film is placed in the row spacing and removed after 30-45 days. (Preliminary patent of Uzbekistan No. 04420, IPC A01C 5/08, 06.04.1991)
The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency due to damage to the film during its operation and removal.
A method of cotton cultivation is also known, including spreading the film on the soil, sowing seeds through holes made in the film into the nest with simultaneous sealing of the film edges with soil, cutting a irrigation furrow and mulching (US patent No. 3315623, IPC A01C 5/04, 25.04.1967).In a well-known method, the plastic film is completely covered with soil when spreading. At the same time, the achieved result is aimed at saving water in case of a thermostatic phenomenon. The agrotechnology used in the well-known solution does not create a greenhouse effect and is used for growing cabbage, cucumbers, etc., but not for cotton.
The purpose of the invention is to create a reliable, simple, but effective method for cultivating cotton, which allows using the greenhouse effect when growing the latter. At the same time, the claimed method also allows you to change the seeding scheme depending on the nature of the land plot, soil composition and harvesting conditions.The essence of the claimed method consists in performing the following operations, namely spreading the film on the soil, sowing seeds through holes made in the film into the nest with simultaneous sealing of the edges of the film with soil, cutting the irrigation furrow and mulching.
However, during the sealing edges of the film to prevent its mechanical slots and sleep the ground, and mulching is carried out after laying the seeds directly into the socket with the closure of the mulch film holes, which are not removed and cleaned along with grown cotton Bush.
This technology allows you to eliminate the formation of soil crust, enhance the greenhouse effect of the film, and eliminate the leakage of heat necessary for plant growth.
Moreover, during the sealing of the edges, the film is often damaged and can be covered with soil, which negatively affects the yield. To prevent this phenomenon, a protective wing with a rubber cushion is used.
In addition, the efficiency of seeding is achieved by more accurately "hitting" the seeds in the holes of the film, which are performed immediately before seeding.
Also, depending on the change in the terrain of the site and soil moisture on it, change the seeding scheme and the distance between the nests.
So, for example, for manual harvesting, change the seeding scheme and the distance between rows, for example, according to the scheme 90×30, and the distance between the nests 12 cm (z-shape zigzag). This improves the airing and growth of the Bush. For machine harvesting of cotton, seeds are sown in a single-line method with a distance between the rows of 90 cm and a distance between the nests of 15 cm (see Fig. 2 and 3).
The proposed method of cotton cultivation is schematically characterized by drawings, where
Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of the seeder;
Fig. 2 shows the scheme of seeding and mulching for manual harvesting;
Fig. 3 shows the scheme of sowing and mulching for machine harvesting.
4 - type of protective wing.
in Fig. 5 and 6 - type of protective wing on the side and back with a cultivator.
The cotton seeder consists of a mulch hopper 1 with a dispenser 2, the valve of which is opened by a lever 3.
Moreover, the hopper 1 and the dispenser 2 are installed on the frame 4.
In addition, the seeder kit includes a drum 5 with a film screwed on it, a protective wing 6, and a sowing drum 7 with mouthpieces 8.in this case, the wing 6 consists of a body 9 and a rubber cushion 10.
The method is performed as follows.
The film wrapped on the drum 5 is placed on the prepared soil, then with the help of a protective wing 6 with a rubber pad 10, the edges of the film are sealed with soil while protecting the film from mechanical damage, and a irrigation furrow is Formed and cut. At the same time, the wing 6 prevents mechanical slots on the film and protects its surface from falling asleep with earth, while the film area remains sufficient for planting seeds in several rows.
In the future, the sowing drum 7, passing over the surface of the film due to the mouthpieces 8, punches holes in the film, nests in the soil and sows seeds in the soil.
From the hopper 1 with the dispenser 2 to the made nests with the seeds planted in them, mulching is carried out with the mulch closing the film holes.Additionally, in the process of cotton cultivation, it is possible to change the seeding scheme and the distance between the nests, which is carried out by changing the number and installation scheme of mouthpieces 8 on the sowing drum 7.In this case, as an example for manual harvesting, change the seeding scheme and the distance between rows, for example, according to the scheme 90×30, and the distance between the nests 12 cm (z-shaped zigzag), which improves the ventilation and growth of the Bush.For machine harvesting of cotton, seeds are sown in a single-line method with a distance between the rows of 90 cm and a distance between the nests of 15 cm (see Fig. 2 and 3).The claimed method provides heat conservation and sufficient irrigation of seeds during growth. Evaporated moisture when returned to the soil irrigates the plants, thus making it possible to save water.During cultivation, adjust the cultivator (figs. 5 and 6) according to a certain scheme from the edge to the center. This ensures the safety of the film.The film is preserved until the end of harvesting, and it is removed to places with a cotton Bush.The application of the claimed method allows for the formation of favorable thermal and water regimes, contributes to the intensive development of the root system, which most fully uses the reserves of soil nutrients.Covering the soil with a plastic film (PP) has a significant impact on the number of microorganisms in different soils, and the higher the degree of coverage of the soil surface, the more microorganisms.Thus, the number of ammonifiers shows the overall biogenicity of soils - in almost all phases of cotton development, they are more than an order of magnitude higher in the soil under the film than in open soil. Common to both soils is the intensive course of the processes of ammonification and nitrification, which improves the nitrogen nutrition of cotton. The increased content of cellulose - decomposing bacteria and nitrifiers in the soil under the film indicates an increase in the processes of humification, denitrifiers - an increase in soil fertility, actinomycetes and micromycetes-an increased activity of decomposition of plant residues in the soil, oligonitrophils-an increased accumulation of molecular nitrogen in the soil. An important advantage of the proposed technology of irrigation of row crops (cotton) according to the film-screened furrows with different degrees of film coverage, the number of major groups of microorganisms involved in the soil formation process increases on the soil surface.
The purpose of the invention is to create a method for cultivating cotton with a film cover of crops, while less labor-intensive and having the effect of accelerated plant growth due to the use of the greenhouse effect of the film.Changing the seeding scheme and the distance between rows is necessary when taking into account the terrain and humidity of the land plot. So, when the terrain is very wet, a narrower distance between the rows is necessary, for example, sowing in one bed, with less humidity, a two-row or other type of sowing is used (see Fig. 2 and 3).
1. Method of cotton cultivation, including rassilka film on the soil, the sowing of seeds through the holes in the tape into the slot with the simultaneous sealing of the edges of the film with soil, cutting irrigation furrows and mulching, characterized in that during sealing the edges of the film to prevent its mechanical slots and sleep the ground, and mulching is carried out after laying the seeds directly in the socket with the closure of the mulch film holes, which are not removed and cleaned along with grown cotton Bush.
2. a Method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of cultivation change the seeding scheme and the distance between the nests.
3. the Method of claim 2, characterized in that the seeds are sown according to the scheme 90×30 with a distance between the nests of 12 cm.
4. a Method according to claim 2, characterized in that the seeds are sown one-line with a distance between the rows of 90 cm and a distance between the nests of 15 cm